第一部分 阅读理解(共两节，满分 40 分)
第一节 (共 15 小题;每小题 2 分，满分 30 分)
阅读下列短文，从每题所给的四个选项(a、b、c 和 d)中，选出最佳选项，并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
use strong passwords and don't go to unclear websites, and you' ll protect yourself online, right? well… that's a good start. but it's not quite that simple. a new report from pew research details some of americans biggest false beliefs about cyber security.
myth 1. emails are always secure
fewer than half (46%)of people said they know email is not always encrypted(加密). encryption ensures only the sender and receiver are able to see the emails. although many email providers, such as google and yahoo, encrypt emails, it's not universal. some companies warm users if communications are unencrypted- for instance gmail displays warning signs when you send or receive an email from an insecure source.
myth 2.private browsing (w)"is always private
surfing the web in a private way prevents the browser- like chrome, firefox, or safar-from collecting data about your activities. but it doesn't prevent an internet service provider. like comcast, from monitoring your activity, just 39% of those surveyed knew broadband companies could see your online activity even when you're in private browsing mode.
myth 3. turning off gps means no one can track me
almost half of people surveyed either didn't know or were unsure whether turning off gps prevents all tracking. your phone's built-in location service is just one way data can be collected. as pew research notes, your phone also connects to signal towers and wi-fi networks, and connection to these technologies allows tracking too
myth 4. my password is enough to protect me
strong passwords are good, but security experts also recommend using two-factor authentication(双重认证) for account security. it prevents hackers from getting into your account. even if they know the password. just 10% of adults can recognize one example of two-factor authentication
1. how does gmail warn users if they receive an email from an insecure source?
a. by reminding them in advance.
b. by displaying warning signals.
c. by helping users encrypt their accounts. d by stopping the sending tasks
2. which company can break through the private browsing mode?
a. comcast. b. firefox. c. safari d. chrome.
3. one may be tracked through the following ways except .
a. the gps in your phone b. the connection to signal towers c the connection to wi-fi networks d. the breaking of your passwords
a woman called deborah french, who has a son with autism (孤独症), has written a cookbook for children with special needs after finding cooking had a positive effect.
deborah's son henry was diagnosed with high functioning autism at the age of five. then she had to give up her well-paid job to spend time with him, as he didn't communicate with others, didn’t go out to play with other kids, and even didn't watch cartoons. deborah was struggling to cope with the situation but there was a huge shift when henry was seven years old. one cold day, the family decided to bake cookies, deborah purchased super-sized cookie cutters to help make up for clumsy fingers but was surprised that henry's movements were controlled and attentive. henry's cookie shapes were so perfect that deborah barely made any cookies that afternoon; she simply watched henry in amazement, as every evaluation deborah had received from the doctors had stated that henry was unable to concentrate for longer than five minutes on any given task. as a tray of freshly baked cookies came out of the oven, deborah realized that in the kitchen henry's concentration and fine motor skill were excellent.
since then, deborah and her family have used cooking as a way to develop motor skills and enjoy time together. deborah was worried when she allowed henry to use a kitchen knife. but after a month or continuously baking cookies, deborah took a giant leap of faith and watched as henry followed her careful instructions and prepared a salad without hurting himself. the little gradually skilled cook gave deborah the inspiration to write the cookbook in which she wrote "it's clear that cooking developed henry's motor skills and gave him a wonderful sense of achievement, and he is walking out of his lonely world step by step.”
the book is targeted at children with special needs with the use of pictures to identify different cooking methods. deborah explains everything in details from how to hold a knife to how to use your hands to mix batter. "my hope is that these recipes can help other families find inspiration in the kitchen, "she says. "just as they have done for mine.”
1. which of the following statements about henry is true according to the passage?
a. he didn't like other kids. b. he used to fail to concentrate.
c. he was born with disabilities d. he was the only child in the family.
2. what inspired deborah to write the cookbook?
a. the doctors' advice. b. her dream of being a writer.
c. henry's love for cooking d. other families experience.
3. what's the special benefit of the cookbook for kids
a. it can provide rich nutrition. b. it can develop motor skills.
c. it can interest kids in cooking d. it can explore cooking inspiration
4. what's deborah's purpose to write the cookbook?
a. in order to achieve great fame b. in order to support her family
c. in order to seek effective treatments. d. in order to help families like hers.
do cell phones cause cancer? no one knows for sure. mobile phones have only been widely used for around 20 years, with the very first ones introduced just over 30 years ago. it's too soon to tell just how harmful cell-phones are.
in february 2011, a study published in the journal of the american medical association recorded changes in brain glucose metabolism(葡萄糖代谢) during cell phone use. the study
became the first to prove that cell phone use changes brain activity by monitoring 47 healthy volunteers seated and on the phone for 50 minutes. the volunteers’ brains were monitored by positron emission tomography (pet) scans to measure glucose metabolism.
then in may 2011. the world health organization's international agency for research on cancer (arc) added radiation from cell phones to its list of substances(物质) that possibly cause cancer in humans. the iarc's research found that most cell phone use did not lead to more risk of glioma, a dangerous type of brain cancer, or meningioma, a more common, but typically not harmful, cancer. however, the study did find enough evidence that using cell phones for long periods of time on the same side of the head could mean an increased risk of glioma.
in a contrasting report released in july 2011, a british institute of cancer research study found little evidence of cancer risk in 10 to 15 years of use. the study showed that there have been no increases in brain tumors (肿瘤) in several countries over the last 30 years since cell phones were introduced or even in the last 20 years since their use became more widespread
with no long-term research available yet, limiting exposure to cell phone radiation by texting more and talking less is recommended. stay off the phone- when you have a weak signal, as it will need more radiation to contact the tower. phone use for children should also be limited because their brains absorb twice as much cell phone radiation
the kind of radiation that cell phones release is non-ionizing(非电离的) radiation, less harmful than ionizing
radiation, which can cause mutations (突变)and cancer. however, scientists have long believed that non-ionizing radiation can enter the body and cause harm to sensitive tissue. because of the lack of long-term evidence, it's probably best to limit exposure whenever possible.
1. why can we not be sure whether cell phones cause cancer?
a. because past findings have been proven unreliable.
b. because there has been little research into it up to now.
c. because it's difficult to track the bad effects of cell phone radiation.
d. because there has been little evidence of it given the short history of cell phones.
2. what did the iarc find from their research?
a. radiation from cell phones could increase the risk of cancer.
b. most use of cell phones could lead to an increased risk of cancer.
c. cell phone use could change brain glucose metabolism
d. cell phone use is more likely to cause meningioma than glioma.
3. to reduce the harm from cell phone use, what is recommended to do?
a. to stay far away from the signal tower.
b. to talk more and text less via cell phones.
c. to limit children’s exposure to cell phones.
d. to use cell phones when the signal is weak.
4. what is the idea of the last paragraph?
a. to discuss how to reduce cell phone radiation.
b. to tell reader about the bad effects of non-ionizing radiation.
c. to explain why limiting exposure to cell phone radiation counts.
d. to inform us of the link between non-ionizing radiation and cancer.
recently, when it comes to shopping, more americans are taking out their smart phones, but no one thinks stores are going away forever.
professor sucharita mulpuru said stores of the future would be more about services, like day care and beauty services
some stores are taking self-service further. a store in seattle called hointer shows clothing not in piles but with one piece hanging at a time, like a gallery. shoppers just touch their smart phones to select a color and a size. technology in the store keeps track of the items, and by the time the shoppers are ready to try them on, they’re already in the dressing room.
if the shoppers don't like the items, they just need to shake their smart phones to remove the items from their online shopping carts. if they keep their favorite items, it means they will buy the items when leaving the store. no checkout is involved.
within 10 years, 3d printing will play an important role in the market. for example, instead of producing a coffee cup in china and transporting it to a store, you can juts download the code for the coffee cup and print it in your own home.
steve yankovich, head of innovation(革新) for ebay, thinks one day buying household supplies won't take any effort at all. he says a connected home may use previous customer data to sense when a light bulb will bum out and order a new one on the internet easily.
5. why stores aren' t going away forever?
a. stores of the future would offer shopping carts.
b. stores of the future would offer more services.
c. stores of the future would need customers to pay on the internet.
d. stores of the future would use previous data.
6. what will shoppers do if they dislike the items?
a. they remove their favorite items from their online shopping cart.
b. they keep their favorite items from their online shopping cart.
c. they sell their favorite items from their online shopping cart.
d. they buy their favorite items from their online shopping cart.
7. if you want to produce a coffee cup by 3d printing, what should you do?
a . update the computer.
b. shake the smart phone.
c. have the code for the coffee cup.
d. check out on the internet.
8.what's steve yankovich's attitude towards online shopping?
a. indifferent. b. doubtful c. negative d. favorable